7 Best Functional Fitness Pre-Workouts in 2024

Author: Oleksandr Maksymenko (5 years as FPA-Certified Nutritionist, MS in Sports Dietetics)

If you are a functional fitness athlete, you probably seek to get the best from your workouts. Athletes who have already passed the novice stage and want to reach a new level of athleticism are increasingly paying attention to pre-workouts supplements. Below we have brought you the 7 best fitness pre workout.

 In a hurry? 

In a hurry?

In a hurry and can’t keep reading? How about you check out the BULK by Transparent Labs


It has an excellent composition of key and additional ingredients, as well as their needed dosages to get all the effects that we expect from a great-working pre-workout.

WBCM 7 Best  pre workouts

Top 7 Best Functional Fitness Pre Workout Reviewed

ProductTotalStimulationTaste/FlavorNutrition Label TransparencyValue for Money
BULK38.59.59.59.510
Pre-Kaged38.5109.5109
Wrecked36.59999.5
Gorilla Mode36.59999.5
Naked Energy36.5999.59
Gold Standard36.5999.59
C4 Original368.59.599

1. Bulk by Transparent Labs – Top Pick

Bulk by Transparent Labs
  • Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, High-Intensity Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume, Enhanced “Pumping” Effect, Mental Focus
  • Flavor: Strawberry Kiwi, Pina Colada, Blue Raspberry, Watermelon, Black Cherry, Sour Grape, Green Apple, Orange, Strawberry Lemonade, Lemon Lime, Peach Mango
  • Caffeine: 200 mg
  • Special Ingredients: Citrulline Malate, Beta-Alanine, Betaine, L-Theanine, Alpha-GPC
  • Package Information: 30 Servings per container
  • Serving: 1 Scoop (20.6 g)
  • Company Founded: 2015
  • Recommended by: Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson, Paul Sklar
Performing Bulk by Transparent Labs

Photo by @jakehand21

BULK was formulated to help increase strength, muscular endurance, enhance pumping effect, as well as increase alertness. It has an excellent composition of key and additional ingredients, as well as their needed dosages to get all the effects that we expect from a great-working pre-workout.


One serving contains 200 mg of caffeine, which is the optimal dosage for those who want to get a stimulation and performance enhancing effect, but reduce the likelihood of negative effects that can appear from using pre-workouts with a high single dose of caffeine.


In addition to the optimal dose of caffeine, it contains the needed dosages of Citrulline Malate and Betaine, which demonstrated training effects in trials. It is especially worth noting the dose of betaine (2.5 g per serving). It is this single dose that can be the most useful specifically in very high intensity training to improve strength and power.

Among all the products in this rating, only BULK contains L-theanine, which may reduce anxiety and jitters associated with caffeine.


The only relative disadvantage is a large single dose of beta-alanine (4 g). Tingling is guaranteed, although this side effect is not harmful. On the other hand, 4 g is the dosage that provides the required daily dose of beta-alanine during loading period, which is 3.2-6.4 g per day.

38.5Expert Score

It has an excellent composition of key and additional ingredients, as well as their needed dosages to get all the effects that we expect from a great-working pre-workout.

Stimulation
9.5
Taste/Flavor
9.5
Nutrition Label Transparency
9.5
Value for Money
10

Positives:

  • Great composition and dosage of ingredients

  • Optimal dose of caffeine per serving

  • Contains an optimal single dose of betaine

  • Contains L-Theanine, which is a good combo for caffeine

  • Third party tested

Could be better:

  • Very high single dose of beta-alanine (high tingle risk)

2. Pre-Kaged by Kaged – Runner Up 

Pre-Kaged by Kaged
  • Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, High-Intensity Exercise Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume, Enhanced “Pumping” Effect, Mental Focus
  • Flavors: Pink Lemonade, Fruit Punch, Krisp Apple, Grape, Orange Crush, Cherry Bomb, Berry Blast
  • Caffeine: 274 mg per serving
  • Special Ingredients: Creatine, Beta-Alanine, L-Citrulline, Betaine
  • Package Information: 20 servings per container
  • Serving: 27.9-29.6 g (per scoop)
  • Company Founded: 2014
  • Recommended by Athletes: Michael Wittig, Jessica Madison, Tawna McCoy
Performing Pre-Kaged by Kaged

Pre-Kaged is a top-level pre workout that combines key scientifically-based ingredients that can help you achieve better results in the training room. You can expect strong stimulation, great energy boost, better focus and enhanced pump.

Pre-Kaged contains the highest dose of caffeine in this ranking (274 mg per serving), so it has the strongest stimulating effect. This is important to consider, especially for women, those who have never used pre-workouts before, as well as people with a poor metabolism of caffeine. This product may not be suitable for these groups of people. It also should be taken into account that the upper safe daily dose of caffeine for healthy adults is 400 mg.


This product contains the needed dose of betaine (2.5 g) as well as a dose of beta-alanine (1.6 g) that has a lower risk of burning and tingling (although this risk is still quite high). Pre-Kaged also contains 1.5 g of creatine, which should be taken into account in the total daily dose of this most studied supplement in the world.


One of the biggest advantages of this product (besides the excellent formula of the ingredients) is the certification from Informed Sport. This ensures that supplement is tested for substances, which are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA).


Overall, Pre-Kaged did not take the top spot for one reason only - the highest cost per serving in this ranking.

38.5Expert Score

Pre-Kaged is a top-level pre workout that combines key scientifically-based ingredients. You can expect strong stimulation, great energy boost, better focus and enhanced pump.

Stimulation
10
Taste/Flavor
9.5
Nutrition Label Transparency
10
Value for Money
9

Positives:

  • The greatest stimulating effect in this rating (best for athletes with great caffeine tolerance and experience of taking pre-workout)

  • Great overall composition and dosage of ingredients

  • Contains an optimal single dose of betaine

  • Not too high single dose of beta-alanine

  • Certified by Informed Sport

Could be better:

  • Not suitable for beginners and people with poor caffeine metabolism

  • Highest price in this ranking

Wrecked by Huge Supplements
  • Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, High-Intensity Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume, Enhanced “Pumping” Effect, Mental Focus
  • Flavor: Raspberry Mojito, Bomb Popsicle, Rainbow Burst, Peach Rings, Sour Gummy
  • Caffeine: 175 mg
  • Special Ingredients: L-Citrulline, Beta Alanine, Betaine Anhydrous
  • Package Information: 40 Servings per container
  • Serving: 1 Scoop (15.5 g)
  • Company Founded: 2019
  • Recommended by: Oliver Forslin, Matt Greggo, Mo Samuels
Wrecked by Huge Supplements

Photo by @nadergains

The third position in our rating is occupied by the Wrecked from Huge Supplements. One scoop contains 175 mg of caffeine from caffeine and Di-Сaffeine malate. The latter is an ionically bonded combination of caffeine and malic acid, which has been reported to alleviate the digestive problems induced by natural caffeine and caffeine anhydrous.


In addition to caffeine, one serving of Wrecked contains 4 grams of L-citrulline, 1.75 g of beta-alanine and 1.5 g of betaine. Taking into account the cost of one serving and the overall composition and dosage of ingredients, this product took third place.

Although the manufacturer indicates the dosage for 2 versions (1 scoop and 2 scoops), keep in mind that the double serving contains a very high single dose of caffeine. At the same time, the cost per serving will also double - instead of $1.25, you will spend $2.50 every time you mix your pre-workout.

36.5Expert Score

In addition to caffeine, one serving of Wrecked contains 4 grams of L-citrulline, 1.75 g of beta-alanine and 1.5 g of betaine. Taking into account the cost of one serving and the overall composition and dosage of ingredients, this product took third place.

Stimulation
9
Taste/Flavor
9
Nutrition Label Transparency
9
Value for Money
9.5

Positives:

  • Good stimulating effect in one serving

  • Very good overall composition and dosage of key ingredients

  • Enhanced pump even from one scoop

  • Great price / effect ratio when taking one scoop

Could be better:

  • Not third party tested

  • A large number of additional ingredients without solid scientific support

Gorilla Mode by the Gorilla Mind
Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, High-Intensity Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume, Enhanced “Pumping” Effect
Flavor: Firefly Lemonade, Cherry Blackout, Cotton Candy Grape, Fruit Punch, Jungle Juice, Lemon Lime, Mango Peach, Major Mojito, Krush, Tigers Blood, Volcano Burst, Mouthwatering Watermelon, Bombsicle
Caffeine: 175 mg
Special ingredients: Creatine Monohydrate, L-Citrulline, Betaine
Servings Size: ≈15 g
Package Information: 40 servings per container
Company Founded: 2017
Recommend By Athletes: Simon Miller, Jessie James West, Lex Little
Performing Gorilla Mode by the Gorilla Mind

Gorilla has a very good ingredient combination, which provides an energy boost, increased high-intensity performance and an enhanced pump.


This product features a large dose of creatine in one serving (2.5 g), a good price-per-serving ratio (if you mix one scoop), and a wide selection of flavors. Everyone will be able to choose one or more favorite flavors.


Also, one portion contains the required dose of citrulline for an enhanced pumping effect. This is a good aid for those who train in the medium or high repetition range.

Сompared to other products in this rating, Gorilla Mode does not contain beta-alanine, which can be considered a disadvantage for one, but an advantage for another. If you're looking for a beta-alanine-free pre-workout because you want to avoid the tingling, this might be the product for you.

36.5Expert Score

This product features a large dose of creatine in one serving (2.5 g), a good price-per-serving ratio (if you mix one scoop), and a wide selection of flavors. Everyone will be able to choose one or more favorite flavors.

Stimulation
9
Taste/Flavor
9
Nutrition Label Transparency
9
Value for Money
9.5

Positives:

  • Good stimulating effect in one serving

  • Very good overall composition and dosage of key ingredientseakdown

  • Enhanced pumping effect

  • Contains 2.5 g of creatine monohydrate per serving

  • Does not cause a tingling sensation due to the absence of beta-alanine

  • Great price / effect ratio when taking one scoop

Could be better:

  • Not third party tested

  • Contain few additional ingredients without scientific support

Naked Energy by Naked Nutrition
  • Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, High-Intensity Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume
  • Flavor: Unflavored, Fruit Punch, Citrus
  • Caffeine: 200 mg
  • Special Ingredients: Beta-Alanine, Creatine Monohydrate
  • Package Information: 30 or 50 serving per container
  • Serving: 4.8-16g
  • Company Founded: 2014
  • Recommended By Athletes: Kenzie Mariano, Daniel Victor, Hope
Performing Naked Energy by Naked Nutrition

Photo by @just_ralph_c

Naked Energy was formulated on the principle of the "Big three" ingredients that have the most scientific support: caffeine, creatine and beta-alanine. One serving contains a dose of caffeine (200 mg) for great stimulation and combating fatigue, 1 g of creatine monohydrate for better high-intensity performance and 2 g of beta-alanine to improve strength endurance and increase training volume.


Among the relative disadvantages - a very limited number of flavors to choose from and a single dosage of beta-alanine, which significantly increases the chances of tingling. Also, compared to products that occupy higher positions, Naked Energy lacks some additional components with potential effects: citrulline and betaine.


On the other hand, connoisseurs of products with a minimum amount of food additives will definitely appreciate the unflavored version, which contains absolutely nothing but the active components of the pre-workout. In addition, the product contains several water-soluble vitamins, although some other products from this rating also have them in their composition, therefore, Naked Energy is not unique in this context.


Note that the best deal is the unflavored version, which costs less than a dollar, while the “Citrus” or “Fruit Punch” versions cost $1.50 per serving and contain added sugar. There is also a steam-free version that does not contain caffeine and creatine.

Please note that the overall score and points are for the unflavored (caffeinated) version only.

36.5Expert Score

One serving contains a dose of caffeine (200 mg) for great stimulation and combating fatigue, 1 g of creatine monohydrate for better high-intensity performance and 2 g of beta-alanine to improve strength endurance and increase training volume.

Stimulation
9
Taste/Flavor
9
Nutrition Label Transparency
9.5
Value for Money
9

Positives:

  • Great dosing of caffeine to get performance enhancing effect, minimizing side effects

  • Contains creatine and beta-alanine

  • Great price / ingredients breakdown ratio

  • Zero food additives (if that's important to you)

Could be better:

  • Does not contain betaine and citrulline

  • High risk of tingling due to high dose of beta-alanine

  • Not the most attractive taste

  • Unspecified third party certification

Gold Standard Pre Workout by Optimum Nutrition
  • Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, High-Intensity Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume
  • Flavor: Blueberry Lemonade, Fruit Punch, Green Apple, Watermelon
  • Caffeine: 175 mg
  • Special Ingredients: Creatine Monohydrate, Beta-Alanine
  • Package Information: 30 servings per container
  • Serving: 10 g
  • Company Founded (year): 1986
  • Recommended By Athletes: Taylor Fritz, Justin “Jets” Jefferson, Morgan Willett
Gold Standard Pre Workout by Optimum Nutrition

Photo by @thesuppstore

Gold Standard Pre Workout contains a decent dosage of caffeine for a moderate stimulating effect, although for beginners and women, 175 mg of caffeine can give a strong enough stimulation.


​​Among the strongest sides is 3 grams of creatine monohydrate in one dose, which is the daily norm for those who take exactly this dosage. Also, this product contains a relatively low single dose of beta-alanine (1.5 g), which can still cause tingling, but the risk is lower than with a single dose of 2 g, let alone 4 g.


Also, this pre-workout contains one of the highest amounts of added vitamins of any product on this list. Overall, Gold Standard Pre Workout has a good value for money, especially if you take into account that it is manufactured by a reputable brand.

36.5Expert Score

Among the strongest sides is 3 grams of creatine monohydrate in one dose, which is the daily norm for those who take exactly this dosage.

Stimulation
9
Taste/Flavor
9
Nutrition Label Transparency
9.5
Value for Money
9

Positives:

  • Moderate stimulating effect

  • Contains 3 g of creatine monohydrate

  • Contains one of the highest amounts of added vitamins in this rating

  • Good price / ingredients breakdown ratio

  • Very reputable brand

Could be better:

  • Very low dose of citrulline

  • Does not contain betaine

C4 Original by Cellucor
  • Best For: Overall Exercise Performance, Muscular Endurance, Reducing Fatigue, Training Volume
  • Flavor: Cherry Limeade, Strawberry Watermelon, Grape, Watermelon, Frozen Bombsicle, Icy Blue Razz, Fruit Punch, Pink Lemonade, Strawberry Margarita
  • Caffeine: 150 mg
  • Special Ingredients: Creatine, Beta-Alanine, Vitamins B
  • Package Information: 30 or 60 servings
  • Serving: 6 g
  • Company Founded: 2009
  • Recommended By Athletes: George Bamfo Jr, Alex Michael Turner, Eren Legend
 C4 Original by Cellucor

Photo by @supplements_

C4 Original contains the lowest dosage of caffeine in this ranking, but this does not make it a product that is not worth paying attention to. On the contrary, for those who have never taken pre-workouts before, this product is more than enough! It is also great for women and men of small stature - weighing 50-65 kg.


In addition to 150 mg of caffeine, one serving contains 1 g of creatine, 1.6 g of beta-alanine, as well as a large dose of vitamin C and very high doses of several B vitamins. Considering the cost of one serving for such a composition and dosage of key and additional ingredients, C4 Original is a more than worthy product.

36Expert Score

For those who have never taken pre-workouts before, this product is more than enough! It is also great for women and men of small stature - weighing 50-65 kg.

Stimulation
8.5
Taste/Flavor
9.5
Nutrition Label Transparency
9
Value for Money
9

Positives:

  • More suitable for beginners due to relatively low dose of caffeine

  • Contains creatine and beta-alanine

  • Contains added vitamins

  • Very affordable price

Could be better:

  • Lowest stimulation in this ranking

  • Contains a very low dose of citrulline

  • Does not contain betaine

Why Do You Need Pre Workout While Doing Functional Fitness?

functional fitness is a type of high-intensity training that requires aerobic and anaerobic capacities, strength, endurance and a push of motivation. People who do functional fitness often seek to improve their athletic performance and overall fitness.

A good pre-workout can provide a new impetus for new results, as well as break through a training plateau in experienced functional fitness athletes who have not yet tried this supplement.

Summing up, the best pre workout for functional fitness athletes will:

  • Increase muscular endurance
  • Increase high-intensity performance
  • Delay the onset of fatigue
  • Increase strength and muscle mass

Increase Muscular Endurance

While functional fitness we use our endurance capacity a lot, for example, during AMRAPs (abbreviation for “As Many Rounds/Reps As Possible”). The сrossfit pre workout supplement can increase the muscular endurance we need to do such a task as best as we can. It means that you are going to be able to resist fatigue for a longer period and get the best from the workout, while also improving other physical capacities.

Increased muscular endurance is provided by several key ingredients in the first place, such as caffeine, creatine and beta-alanine, and can also potentially be provided with citrulline and betaine. They are able to work both individually and in synergy with each other.

Increase High-Intensity Performance

Any good pre workout supplement for сrossfit usually contains several ingredients that help support high-intensity performance and capacity. We're talking about creatine, caffeine, beta-alanine and betaine, although creatine is the biggest contributor.

Interestingly, some pre-workout ingredients directly support high-intensity performance (for example, beta-alanine and creatine), while others are able to increase rates of creatine biosynthesis (betaine).

WBCM two shakers on the table

Delays the Onset of Fatigue

Delaying fatigue is one of the key factors for those wishing to increase overall training volume and thus provide a new impetus for physiological adaptive changes (although it is important not to exceed your recovery capacity).

Effect on fatigue is mostly ensured by “Big Three” scientifically-based ingredients: caffeine, creatine and beta-alanine:

Increase Strength and Lean Muscle Mass

Since pre-workouts allow you to support high-intensity training performance and increase training volume, they contribute to increasing strength and building muscle mass.

In this component, special attention belongs to creatine. The International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand says, that creatine can enhance exercise capacity and training adaptations, that would allow to do more work over a series of sets leading to greater gains in strength, muscle mass, and/or performance due to an improvement in the quality of training.

The rest of the key and additional components in the pre workout for functional fitness athletes also play a role and can give a synergistic effect.

Tips From the Champ

Pre-workouts can be a very good supplement for functional fitness athletes, because this type of training requires a top level of muscular endurance, strength, power and focus. If you have already passed the stage of a beginner in functional fitness, you can pay attention to this type of sports supplement. Choose a product based on the recommendations from this article so that your investment of money is justified.

Olympic Weightlifting Champion

How to Find the Best Pre Workout for Functional Fitness?

In order to choose the best product for you, pay attention to several key factors, which are discussed below.

The Composition of Ingredients That Have a Scientific Basis

The best pre-workouts that will help you feel the training effects include the main stimulant - caffeine, as well as beta-alanine and creatine. We call these the "Big Three" components with the most scientific support.

Caffeine should be taken immediately before training, as it has an immediate effect. On the other hand, creatine and beta-alanine do not necessarily need to be taken shortly before training, however, they are included in most pre-workout supplements, so we should consider them in the overall daily dosage.

Other additional ingredients with ergogenic effects worth noting include citrulline and betaine.

WBCM athlet hold blue shaker in the hand

Dosage of Caffeine

In general, to obtain effects, 3-6 mg of caffeine per 1 kg of body weight is required. However, you need to start with the minimum effective dose, which is 1.5-2 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Alternatively, you can simply start with a pre-workout that contains 100 mg or slightly more of caffeine per serving. This is especially important for people of small build and those who have never tried pre-workouts before. Monitor your reaction and increase the caffeine dosage very gradually.

It is better to avoid pre workouts overloaded with caffeine, as too much of it can have a negative impact on your performance, which is something that you surely do not want to happen. Remember that the daily dose of caffeine for healthy adults should not exceed 400 mg from all sources.

Keep in mind that this stimulant may have no effect or even reduce athletic performance in some people. Some individuals just didn't respond to caffeine, and others may respond negatively.

Dosage of Citrulline and Betaine

In order to obtain potential effects, these components must be contained in doses that have shown effects in trials. Effective doses are:

  • Minimum 3 g for L-Citrulline or 6 g for Citrulline Malate,
  • 1.25-2.5 g for betaine (however a single dose of 2.5 g is preferred).

Please note that there are plenty of products on the pre-workout market that contain an insufficient dose of citrulline.

Third Party Testing

If you want to minimize potential risks, it is best to choose products that have been tested by an independent organization for the presence of contaminants, substances banned in sport and heavy metal levels.

The well-known organizations include Informed Choice / Sport and NSF Certified for Sport.

WBCM shaker stand on the flor

Pre Workout Tips for Functional Fitness

As we have seen, there are many good options when we talk about functional fitness pre workout supplement, but more than knowing which one to consume it is also important to know how and when to consume it.

How to Take Pre Workout

Pre workouts are usually mixed with water, but some people prefer to mix them with juice in order to improve taste. If it doesn't cause digestive issues, it's fine.

When to Take Pre Workout

The best timing to take a pre-workout is approximately 30-40 minutes before training, but the general range is 30-60 minutes.

FAQ

Is Pre-workout Good Before Functional Fitness?

Yes, because functional fitness is a type of high-intensity training that requires very good overall athletic performance, muscular endurance, strength, attention and reaction speed. The ingredients in a well-formulated pre-workout help with this.

Do Functional Fitness Athletes Use Pre-workout?

Yes, they do. They take pre workouts that meet their needs and goals, as they help them enhance athletic performance and stay more motivated during training sessions.

Conclusion

Pre-workouts can be a very good supplement for functional fitness athletes, because this type of training requires a top level of muscular endurance, strength, power and focus. If you have already passed the stage of a beginner in functional fitness, you can pay attention to this type of sports supplement. Choose a product based on the recommendations from this article so that your investment of money is justified.

Our top pick is BULK from reputable brand Transparent Labs!

Have you ever tried the pre workouts mentioned above? Leave your comments below!

Also read:

References:

  • Anabolic Resistance of Muscle Protein Turnover Comes in Various Shapes and Sizes // Frontiersin: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2021.615849/full
  • Strategies to Prevent Sarcopenia in the Aging Process: Role of Protein Intake and Exercise // MDPI: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/1/52
  • Defining anabolic resistance: implications for delivery of clinical care nutrition // Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29389741/
  • Milk allergy // Mayo Clinic: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/milk-allergy/symptoms-causes/syc-20375101
  • Dietary Supplements // FDA: https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/dietary-supplements
  • Strategies to Prevent Sarcopenia in the Aging Process: Role of Protein Intake and Exercise // MDPI: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/14/1/52
  • How much protein can the body use in a single meal for muscle-building? // Bio Med Central: https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0215-1
  • Dietary leucine requirement of older men and women is higher than current recommendations // Pubmed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33330915/

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With over 20 years in Olympic Weightlifting, our team does its best to provide the audience with ultimate support and meet the needs and requirements of advanced athletes and professional lifters, as well as people who strive to open new opportunities and develop their physical capabilities with us.

All products we select are primarily approved and tested by the Olympic Weightlifting Champion Oleksii Torokhtiy. Under his guidance, we provide honest and reasonable assessments of the products we review by checking their characteristics, packaging, design, comfort and durability features, and general product rating. We select products from only high-quality and trusted sports brands, thus vouching for their quality.

The product testing process is described in more detail here
Oleksandr Maksymenko

Sports Nutritionist, MSc

Experience: 7 years

Specializing in: Weight management, Fitness / Sports nutrition

Oleksandr is a professional fitness nutritionist, certified by FPA (Fitness Professional Association). Oleksandr adheres to the principles of evidence-based dietetics and instills in his clients a healthy relationship with food - without strict prohibitions on favorite foods and regular disruptions. His main task – not only get a result for you, but also maintain it for many years, enjoying tasty and delicious food.


If you have any questions/suggestions/any other inquiry, you can reach out to us via email - reviews@torokhtiy.com

This article was written by our qualified author and proofread by an expert with proven experience. When writing the article we've used our expertise and data from authoritative, scientific, and evidence-based sources. The list of references is provided at the end of the article.


Our team of authors and experts includes professional athletes (Olympians, winners of European and World titles), PhDs in Sports Science, certified coaches, sports nutritionists, CSCSs, physiotherapists, and others. Read more about the team here, and more about how we test here.

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